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AffiliationsContributionsCorresponding authors

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  1. Personal Genomics Institute, Genome Research Foundation, Suwon 443-270, Republic of Korea

    • Yun Sung Cho,
  2. Hak-Min Kim,
  4. Sungwoong Jho,
  6. Young-Ah Shin,
  8. Byung Chul Kim,
  10. Chang-uk Kim,
  11. Sunghoon Lee,
  13. Priyvrat Gadhvi,
  15. Jong-Soo Kim &
  16.            Jong Bhak
  17. BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China

    • Li Hu,
  18. Haolong Hou,
  20. Jiaohui Xu,
  22. Qian Zhou,
  24. Pengwei Xu,
  26. Yingqi Xiong,
  28. Yadan Luo,
  30. Shengkai Pan,
  31. Caiyun Gou,
  33. Xiuhui Chu,
  35. Jilin Zhang,
  37. Sanyang Liu,
  39. Jing He,
  41. Ying Chen,
  43. Linfeng Yang,
  45. Yulan Yang,
  47. Jiaju He,
  49. Sha Liu,
  51. Junyi Wang &
  53. Jun Wang
  54. Tiger and Leopard Conservation Fund in Korea and College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea

    • Hang Lee
  55. Samsung Everland Zoo, Yongin 449-715, Republic of Korea

    • Soowhan Kwon &
  56. Sukhun Oh
  57. School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743, Korea

    • Sangsoo Kim
  58. Theragen BiO Institute, TheragenEtex, Suwon 443-270, Republic of Korea

    • Byung Chul Kim,
  59. Hyunmin Kim,
  61. Tae Hyung Kim,
  63. Sunghoon Lee,
  65. Hyun-Ju Jung,
  67. Chul Hong Kim,
  68. Hwanjong Kwak,
  70. Junsu Ko,
  72. Seong-Jin Kim &
  74. Jong Bhak
  75. Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

    • Shu-Jin Luo &
  76. Xiao Xu
  77. Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, Virgina 22630, USA

    • Warren E. Johnson
  78. Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg 199034, Russia

    • Klaus-Peter Koepfli &
  79. Stephen J. O’Brien
  80. Life Technologies Conservation Genetics Laboratory, Cheetah Conservation Fund, Otjiwarongo 9000, Namibia

    • Anne Schmidt-Küntzel
  81. Global White Lion Protection Trust, Tsau Conservancy, Greater Timbavati Region, PO Box 858, Limpopo 1380, South Africa

    • Jason A. Turner
  82. Cheetah Conservation Fund, Otjiwarongo 9000, Namibia

    • Laurie Marker
  83. Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa

    • Cindy Harper &
  84. Susan M. Miller
  85. Department of Nature Conservation, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa

    • Susan M. Miller
  86. Ukutula Lodge & Lion Centre, NorthWest Province Brits 0250, South Africa

    • Wilhelm Jacobs
  87. Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, PO Box 9518, Leiden RA 2300, The Netherlands

    • Laura D. Bertola
  88. Korean Bioinformation Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea

    • Seungwoo Hwang
  89. Department of Life Science, Sangmyung University, Seoul 110-743, Republic of Korea

    • Chang-Bae Kim
  90. Department of Biology, Sungshin Women’s University, Seoul 142-732, Republic of Korea

    • Sangtae Kim
  91. Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, School of Biology and Biotechnology, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646A, Mongolia

    • Damdin Bayarlkhagva
  92. National Science Museum, Daejeon 305-705, Republic of Korea

    • Woon Kee Paek
  93. CHA Cancer Institute, CHA University, Seoul 135-081, Republic of Korea

    • Seong-Jin Kim
  94. Oceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University, Ft Lauderdale, Florida 33004, USA

    • Stephen J. O’Brien
  95. Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark

    • Jun Wang
  96. King Abdulaziz University 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    • Jun Wang
  97. Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology Nano Science and Technology, Suwon 443-270, Republic of Korea

    • Jong Bhak
  98. Program in Nano Science and Technology, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270, Republic of Korea

    • Jong Bhak


Y.S.C., L.H., H.H., H.L. and J.X. contributed equally to this work. The tiger genome project was initiated by J.B., B.C.K., H.L., T.H.K., S. Lee., Sangtae K., C.-B.K., S.-J.K., W.K.P. and Jun W.

Library construction, sequencing, bioinformatics data processing and analysing genetic variation data were carried out by L.H., J.X., H.K., S.J., Y.-A.S., Q.Z., H.K., C.-U.K., Y.X., Y.L., S.P., C.G., X.C., J.Z., Sanyang L., Jing H., Y.C., L.Y., Y.Y., Jiaju H., S.-J.L., Junyi .W., J.-S.K., H.-M.K., Y.S.C., T.H.K., Sangsoo K., J.B. and Jun W.

Several big cat genome re-sequencing were performed by H.-J.J. and C.H.K. PCR validations were performed by H.-J.J. and Hwanjong K., S. Kwon., S.O., W.K.P., H.L. and D.B. provided samples, advice and associated information.

Y.S.C., L.H., H.H., S.-J.L, W.J., K.-P.K. X.X., P.G., S.H., J.K., C.-B.K., H.L., Sangtae K., Sangsoo K., S.J.O., Jun W., and J.B. wrote, edited and revised the manuscript.

A.S.-K. conducted overall project coordination, data analysis and presentation of lion DNA analysis and overseeing/planning of laboratory work done at CCF (Cheetah Conservation Fund). J.A.T. carried out the lion DNA project initiation for samples of the Tsau Conservancy and the Johannesburg Zoo. L.M. did support of the laboratory work done at CCF. C.H. performed communication and project initiation at VGL (Veterinary Genetics Laboratory) and oversaw the laboratory work done at VGL, sampling and funding. S.M.M. at VGL did planning and execution of the laboratory work, pedigree verificationand reference samples of other populations.

Wilhelm J. did pedigree information processing and sampling at the Ukutula Lodge. L.B. did the sample processing and laboratory work of Ouwehands Dierenpark and PLE171.